Posts tagged wireless router
Cabling up an office is expensive. So what should you do when you move premises? There are a few basic options for the small business owner.
The first question I often get is “Can I just go completely wireless?”. The answer is yes you can, but be prepared to do it properly and be prepared for it to be a bit more complex than you first thought.
Many small businesses typically use a home grade wireless router for their wireless networking needs. This is the kind of appliance that you’d usually have at home. The bad news is that while this might kind of get you by, it’s not a business grade solution and it’s not usually very secure.
Business grade wireless access points have several features that most of the home grade appliances don’t have.
Firstly you might need a larger, more powerful antenna to better cover your office, which most of the home wireless routers don’t offer.
Secondly, if you’re concerned about security for your wireless network, then you should consider having the computers that use your wireless network authenticate with your network server using a technology such as RADIUS.
Thirdly, you might need multiple wireless access points to seamlessly work together to cover your entire office, which the home wireless router won’t help you with.
Fourthly you might want to monitor who’s connecting to your wireless network and again a technology like RADIUS will help with this.
Lastly if you intend to allow guests to your office to connect to the internet then you’ll need to segregate them from the rest of your network and give them a secure way of connecting without giving away your office passwords.
The other issue with wireless networks is that often yours can be prone to interference from other nearby offices.
Not so simple is it?
So the other option is to cable up an office. The thing about cabling an office is that you get a higher quality, faster, more secure network. If you’re doing this afresh, make sure to ask your network cabling contractor to use Category 6 network cabling as it’ll be more reliable with the higher speeds that are coming out for networks.
Cabling an office is expensive, but unless you’ve got a big budget for a wireless network to do it properly, it’s probably the best option.
Many businesses will have their office cabled and have wireless access for their meeting areas. This is normal and it’s a lot simpler than setting up a wireless network to cover every nook and cranny in many offices.
Go in with your eyes wide open and be prepared to compromise a little bit with the wireless and remember that the wireless appliances like the one you have at home are just that, home grade appliances.
Without going too much into detail, a router is a physicall devices that join multiple wired or wireless networks together (like a electricity adapter (where it uses many lead to connect and still only uses one main powerpoint)
Advantages of Wireless Routers are:
1. Wireless routers are equipped with modems, network switch (a device that has multiple connection ports for connecting computers and other network devices) and a wireless access points.
2. Wireless Router can be connected to / from anywhere in your immediate environment or house. That means you can log on and surf the Internet from anywhere around your surrounding.
3. Some of the wireless routers are equipped with a built in firewall to ward of intruders. The configuration options of the firewall are an important consideration when buying a router. Buying a wireless router with good firewall configuration options can be helpful for security and privacy.
4. The broadband router wireless VoIP technology is a technology that enables you to can connect to the Internet, using any ordinary phone device. You can then make calls to anybody in the world via your Internet connection. Wireless router provides strong encryption (WPA or AES) and features the filters MAC address and control over SSID authentication.
1. The wireless connection will be slightly slower than the wired connection. Simply put, wireless or WI-FI transmits through the air and can be blocked interfered with by other waves from the surrounding.
2. Security is one of the main concern when it comes to networking generally, wired network provides for more regid security to wireless. This means that all of your private data stored in your laptop or PDA could be exposed to anyone in the same vicinity. It’s possible that an dishonest person could obtain passwords and important personal information easily from wireless networks if not properly configured.
3. There is a large congestion of WI-FI, especially in the cities where you have a large population of stores and big organisations that transmits over the same channel, causing much interference.
Theses are some of the known advantages/disadvantages of having a wireless network, just consider these factors before setting up a wireless network.
Do you face problems like weak WiFi signal? Does it take too long for you to connect to your internet? Do you think that your WiFi signal isn’t strong as it should be? Do you lose the internet connection entirely in some areas of your house? If you said yes to these questions then you have reached the right spot.
Here is an answer to your wireless network problems.Read on to learn about the tops tips on how to maximize your wireless network distance and boost your WiFi signal.
Location of the Wireless router
The location of the wireless router plays a significant role in its performance. To get the best WiFi signals avoid keeping your wireless router nearby electrical appliances. Cordless phones, telephones, microwaves and televisions should not be anywhere close to the wireless router as they lower the range of your router because of the wavelengths they run on.
Do not keep the wireless router on the floor too. Move the router off the floor and the performance will be better than before. Keep your router away from all metal objects and walls, and floors, because all of these interfere with your router’s wireless signals. The nearer your router is to these obstructions, the interference will be more severe, which will lead to a weaker connection.
Keep the wireless router in a central location, so that all the computers and laptops in your house can work efficiently. If you have only one computer or laptop using the WiFi signal, then simply move your wireless router closer to your computer desk or laptop spot.
Reposition your wireless router, get it nearer to your computer and I can assure you that you’ll be surprised with the results. The WiFi signal will turn really powerful and efficient. The speed and performance will be much- much better than before.
In addition to repositioning your wireless router you can also opt to use a wireless repeater to improve your wireless network. Wireless repeater is an excellent piece of hardware which can boost the WiFi signals massively. Simply place the wireless repeater halfway between your wireless router, modem router, or access point and your computer, and you will experience an instant boost in your wireless signal strength.
Wireless repeater has no phone cables or Ethernet cables, it simply needs to be plugged in to a wall socket. It effectively and efficiently picks up the WiFi point and doubles up its range. The results are amazing; your wireless network performance will improve incredibly.
Do not forget to check out the internal settings of your computer or laptop. The performance of wireless router or adapter in most cases can be fixed by increasing the signal strength option to maximum.
Practice these positioning tips to maximize your wireless signal strength and minimize the interference to your WiFi signals simply by applying a little wireless feng shui. By now you know the tricks to sort out your wireless network problem so go and boost your WiFi signals right now, all the best!
How does a wireless router work? Wireless networks work much in the same way as cordless phones, using radio waves to connect a remote to a base device. When the connection is in place, the radio signal takes the place of a network cable, sending data packets to a variety of destinations.
What is Wi-Fi?
The term Wi-Fi has been accepted into our vernacular as being synonymous with wireless networking, although it technically refers to wireless devices certified by the Wi-Fi Alliance. Certified Wi-Fi devices carry the Wi-Fi logo, signifying that the alliance has tested the product and found it to meet its specifications. For practical purposes, however, when someone asks how Wi-Fi routers work, they are probably talking about a wireless router regardless of whether or not it is certified by the Wi-Fi Alliance.
What is the purpose of Wi-Fi?
Wi-Fi is intended to provide the benefits of networked computers and compatible devices without the use of wires. While Wi-Fi connections are generally slower than wired connections, the trade-off on speed is generally accepted as being worth it for the convenience of mobility. Wi-Fi is also a convenient solution to situations where a cabled connection is not feasible or accessible.
Wi-Fi Routers and Access Points
A wireless router is a network router with a built-in access point. Its job, like any other router is to exchange data between a local area network and the Internet. Sometimes standalone wireless access points are used that are connected to a standard router port on one end and a wireless transceiver on the other. In either configuration, the transceiver sends and receives data via one or more antennae once a radio connection is established with a wireless device.
For a device to connect to a wireless network, a wireless network adapter is required. Most new laptop computers have these built in, while desktop computers can use USB adapters or expansion cards to connect.
Places where Wi-Fi is in operation are often called hot spots, especially when they are designed for public access. People with a wireless device such as a notebook computer can connect to the network and access the Internet through the hotspot. Many hotspots are intended for authorized users such as hotel guests, coffee shop customers, or library patrons. In this case, authentication is required before you can access the network. Most of the time the security key that is needed is found inside the establishment. This prevents unauthorized use from people who might be parked outside.
When a wireless network is set up, a client device connects with the router or access point using a radio signal. A simple way to explain wireless router operation is to compare it to a traffic cop. As part of security, the router decides which network devices are allowed to enter the network, much like a cop has control of an intersection. Once data is allowed to enter, the router determines where it should go, much as a cop might direct you left, right or straight ahead. That way data meant for a local device is not sent to the Internet and data for the Internet is not sent to your printer or another local networked device.
If your wireless network connection is lacking in performance, and feels like it’s moving slower then snail mail, you might need to change a few things to get better performance.
→ What to consider in wireless networking ←
First consider how many wireless or high voltage devices you have in and around the house, as well as where they are located.
Second consider where your highest signal usage is and relocate the antennas so that they are pointed in that direction. After all the signal is the strongest at the tip of the antennas. If you have high voltage devices between your router and your wireless card or USB stick, then you may have problems with interference.
→ Wireless networking drawbacks ←
Wireless signals will pick up electromagnetic frequencies as they travel, so for instance pointing your antennas right through your refrigerator motor, isn’t going to help your signal as much as you might like.
Ovens and ranges also interfere with your wireless signal, and wireless phones which operate on the same frequency will tangle the signal in air. A good way to test your true signal strength. Not speed but strength, is to ping your router which will most likely be on the 192.168.x.x ip range.
→ Wireless networking configurations ←
Typically routers will default to 1 – 10 on this range, and you can configure your router simply by opening a browser and typing in the IP address of the router. Many routers will require you to enter your password before you can modify the settings.
To ping your wireless router simply click on “Start” “Run” then type in “CMD” and hit enter. This will bring up a command prompt, inside the prompt type “Ping 192.168.x.x”. To find your routers IP address, simply open the CMD prompt as per the instructions above, and type in “Ipconfig”. The gateway IP address will be the routers IP. If you have more then 5% packet loss your signal is really bad, and you will most likely experience massive lags in MMOs, when watching videos, or streaming music.
→ Wireless networking dropouts ←
If you are experiencing Wireless drop outs and large amounts of packet losses, then you may want to move your wireless router to another location, where there is less interference. Televisions, radios, wireless phones, ranges, ovens, refrigerators, and thick solid walls can all obstruct your signal, so take these things into mind when you are considering where to place your router.
→ Bad wireless routers ←
If you can move your router right next to your computer and you still don’t get a signal, it might be time to replace your wireless router. Keep in mind that when you get a new router, you will want one that is capable of fulfilling your needs. So if you need a strong signal, make sure that the new router will produce it. If you have a lot of hardwired devices, make sure the new wireless router has enough ports, and if you need a reliable connection, make sure both your router and the wireless devices you plan to use are capable of sending, and receiving the latest wireless broadcasts.
→ Wireless networking RTS threshold and RTS packet size ←
Not all computer software has this, but there is another way around large packet losses. This method is not as clean as the other methods, but it might get the job done. It’s called RTS threshold, this option basically lets you change your packet sizes and if you are losing packets, reducing the size of each packet can sometimes alleviate the problem. By having less data in each packet a few lost packets isn’t such a big loss and the packets can be more quickly replaced.
→ Wireless networking channels ←
Wireless routers and wireless devices can operate on a number of different channels. Phones, iPods, and other devices operating all on the same channel may cause interference, so changing your channel may be an option to look at. However, most routers and wireless devices will choose the best channel by default. By gauging the levels of interference on each channel, then choosing the channel with the least interference, wireless routers often will not have this issue.
→ Wireless networking repeaters ←
There are devices not that unlike routers which will simply tether to your existing wireless network, and repeat that wireless signal from their current location. These can be an option if you are trying to network over great distances. While this isn’t likely to be an issue in home purpose wireless networking, corporate networking may demand it. If the facilities are very large and operate on a single network provision repeaters may be necessary.
→ Conclusion ←
Wireless networking is a fickle thing, and getting the best performance out of your network will rely heavily upon the router you chose to represent that network, the devices in your household, and the placement of your wireless router.
These considerations should be taken before you ever begin to setup your wireless network. If you use devices on opossite sides of the house frequently, you should purchase a router with more then one antenna, that way you can have a strong reliable signal sent in each direction.
There is a lot of planning that can be done before you ever buy your wireless router, but if your reading this you probably already bought it, and you may end up purchasing more then you planned, due to your wireless routers weaknesses. Perhaps it would be cheaper to shop for a new wireless router?
The topic that comes up the most when people ask me about computers is wireless networking (also known as Wi-Fi – Wireless Fidelity, or WLAN – Wireless LAN). What does 802.11g mean? How do I configure my router? How can I leech off of my neighbor’s wireless network? Since I’m running a technology blog, I thought I’d impart my knowledge on the technically-unsavvy (or the WLAN beginner). These tutorials are not for the super advanced networking guru, mind you, so don’t take it as such! This will be a three-part article, broken down into the following parts:
- What you’ll need to setup a wireless network (the part you’re reading now).
- What the standards mean.
- How to configure your wireless network once it’s been setup.
We’ll be practical here. I’m not going to bore you by going into detail about the out-dated wireless standards. You don’t want to know about old technology that you can’t buy anymore. Saying that, I will give you a single paragraph rundown on the origin of the terms IEEE and 802.11, because you’ll see them throughout this three-part article.
What do the terms IEEE and 802.11 mean?
The incremental wireless standards are designated by a letter (e.g. b, g, n) after the numbers 802.11. It’s called 802.11 because that was the name of the group formed to create the standard. You’ll see the acronym IEEE as well, which means ‘Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers’ – the organization that ultimately oversaw the 802.11 group and the creation of the wireless standard. The average consumer doesn’t need to know anything more than that. Pretty straight-forward, no?
Shopping for your wireless network.
Now, lets talk about what you’ll find when you shop for a wireless router. We’ll start with what you’ll need to setup a wireless network in your home – the basics. First, you’ll need a wireless router. There are plenty of makes and models, but generally they do the same thing. I won’t get into which is best, but I’ll tell you what I use. My wireless router is made by D-Link, using the ‘n’ standard (more on standards later). The other major router manufacturers are NetGear, Linksys, Buffalo, Belkin and TRENDnet. Like I said though, they all do generally the same thing. Don’t worry too much about the brand.
The next piece of equipment you’ll need (or won’t need) depends entirely on the computers you’re going to be connecting to your new WLAN. If you’ll be connecting a laptop, chances are you won’t need any additional hardware for it, unless your laptop is more than 5 years old (in which case I’d suggest using it as a door-stop or anti-theft device, instead of a computer). Laptops come with built-in wireless NICs (network interface cards), so chances are you won’t need to buy anything additional.
If you have a PC, you can either connect it wirelessly, or if it’s in close proximity to the wireless router, you can use a network cable and plug it directly into the back of the device. If it’s not close to the router, you’ll need to purchase a wireless NIC. The brand doesn’t absolutely need to be the same as the router, though I’d recommend it for compatibility sake. What you do have to watch for, however, is that the wireless NIC and the wireless router share the same standard. Most likely this will be ‘n’ or ‘g’. Routers and wireless NICs are usually backwards-compatible. Meaning, they’ll work on both standards (and previous standards as well).
You will need at least one network cable. This will be used to connect your router to whatever broadband device you’re using (cable or DSL modem). You’ll need a second cable if you want to connect your PC directly to the router. That’s all as far as hardware goes. Just two – possibly three – pieces of hardware. It doesn’t cost much to setup a WLAN. As I described above, the next article will be focused on the current Wi-Fi standards and what they mean. We’ll get a little more technical there.
Wireless networking has made an unplugged Internet experience possible. The electronic device that has made this possible is the wireless router. These devices are easy to install and setup, which has simplified the set up of a home wireless network. However, most homes equipped with a wireless Internet access facility face range problems.
A router is the central point around which a wireless network is built. A router is a specialized networking device that integrates multiple networks, besides providing wireless Internet access. Check out reviews extensively, before opting for one that is suitable for your requirements. The best router will be the one that offers high data transfer speeds and excellent security features, besides offering an extended range. Make a detailed range comparison before choosing one. If you have already bought a router and have recently realized that its range is inadequate for your purpose, then you need not despair.
What Determines the Range of a Router
A router is a radio transreceiver that provides Internet access through transmission of signals over the air. What decides the range of a router is its transmitting power. It is decided by how powerful a transmitter is installed in the device. The transmitting power and the number of transmission antennas decide the range of a router. The more powerful the signal, longer will it be transmitted, before it damps out.
It is also determined by the frequency of transmission used by a router. A dual band router with two transmission frequencies will ensure faster communication. Opt for the 802.11n wireless networking standard which offers the longest range and highest transmission speeds currently. Let us now see how to extend the wireless network range.
Ways of Expanding the Range
There are many ways of increasing wireless network range, beyond its existing limits. Here are some of the most simplest ways.
Change Position of RouterOne reason for your range problem is physical obstruction due to walls. Position your router in such a position in your house or office that it is least obstructed by physical barriers like walls. This will certainly improve the range of your router.
Change Transmission Power SettingsYour wireless router has transmission power settings that let you control its range. Increasing this transmission power will easily extend the router’s range substantially. Refer to the router’s manual for details on how to increase transmission power.
Use a RepeaterAnother way of expanding range is by using a repeater device. These devices are like relays. They receive the signal transmitted by a router and retransmit them with higher power. This extends the range of your wireless network beyond its inherent limits.
Use a Range ExtenderAnother device that you could use to extend the range is a wireless range extender. They are devices that need to be attached to your router. They amplify the signal strength of the device to extend the range. They are also known as range boosters and signal boosters.
Install a More powerful AntennaThere are wireless booster antennas available in the market that can expand the range of any wireless network. Just replace the existing router antenna with a more powerful one. This is the simplest way of boosting the router’s signal strength.
Implementation of any of the above solutions can guarantee a range extension. It is all a matter of enhancing the transmission power of the router. As I said before, check out the range offered by a router before you purchase it. See to it that it is adequate for your home or office coverage area. This will eliminate the need for extra components to enhance the range later.
Having the Internet at home is a great convenience, and is relatively normal nowadays. However, if you have home internet you may not be satisfied with the Internet speeds that you’re getting. If you’re looking to improve you broadband speed, here are a few tips that might help you improve your internet experience.
Upgrade Your Wireless Router
Getting a newer model of your wireless broadband router can give you improved data speeds. Make sure to look for a model that specifies faster speeds than your old router. This is particularly effective if your current broadband router is more than two or three years old, as speed capacities have changed dramatically in the last few years.
Change the Router Aerial
The longer the aerial on your wireless router the stronger the signal you will get. This will mean that you get faster speeds and that your signal will reach further. It’s not always possible to do this, but it’s worth a try since replacing an aerial will be a lot cheaper than replacing your router.
Nowadays, everything is wireless. And the Internet is no exception. Forget cables and wires and plugs and extensions, connect to your network, by just turning on your router. But a wireless connection is possible by using only a wireless router. With so many different terms and standards, it’s confusing to choose a wireless router. Tech newbies will ask, what is a wireless router?, in the first place. So read on, for a simple explanation on wireless routers, understanding the speed and range standards and the top models for home and gaming use.
What is a Router?A router is a networking device, which is used to direct traffic flow between various devices connected in a network. To understand the role of a router in a network, think of a traffic controller at a busy junction. Routers work in the same manner, and they are a single point of control for a network. Do not confuse a modem with a router. A modem is responsible for allowing an Internet connection but only one device can be connected to the modem at a time. If you have a network of 4 computers, you need a device to distribute the Internet connection, and here’s where a router comes into the picture. Connect your modem and the 4 computers to the router and the router divides the Internet connection. Routers can be accessed for other network tasks, like assigning IP addresses, firewall and network settings.
What is a Wireless Router?Routers connect computers in two ways, wired and wireless. When Ethernet cables are used, it is a wired network. When radio waves are used to connect devices to a network, the router responsible is called a wireless router. The network that you connect to, at an airport or Starbucks, is due to a wireless router. Such routers allow for easy and inexpensive network setting up and management. They can connect a multitude of devices like cell phones, gaming consoles etc. (provided said devices allow Internet connections) easily, without the need to find wires and connect them physically. They help in increasing the area of a network and allow quick and easy access. To connect to a wireless network, all you need is the network name and password. Older router models are only wired. Wireless routers allow both a wireless and wired connection, with up to 6 Ethernet ports, to plug wires into.
Choosing a Wireless RouterTo choose a good wireless router, here are some characteristics to look for:
Speed and StandardsData transmission rates are based on certain standards, set by the IEEE and are known as the 802.11 standards. The 3 current ones used are 802.11b, 802.11g and 802.11 n. Their difference lies in signal strength and speed. 802.11b is the most popular and oldest. It has a maximum raw data rate of 11 Mbps, equivalent to an Ethernet connection. It is the standard followed by most networking equipment due to its low cost and good signal strength. 802.11g has a rate of 54 Mbps and is backwards compatible with 802.11b. So an 802.11g access point will work with 802.11b hardware. 802.11n is the latest IEEE standard. Most wireless networks are migrating to this standard. The data rate is at least 100Mbps, with a good signal range. 802.11n is less susceptible to interference and is backward compatible with 802.11g gear. But be prepared to pay more for this standard.
WarrantyAssume a margin of error, with any device and be prepared for defects, weaknesses or mistakes, with a good warranty. Wireless routers are bundled with warranty packages, which mention a coverage period and support offered. Pay attention to the terms and conditions. Check the duration of coverage, what conditions apply and is the support free or not.
Device CompatibilityComputers have network adapters installed in them, to allow for wireless Internet connection. Make sure the router and the adapters are compatible with each other. For e.g. If your PC has a 802.11b adapter, don’t buy a 802.11n wireless router, as they will not work together. Checking these sort of technical details, ensures less money spent in buying compatible parts. And try to buy accessories like bridges, adapters, preferably of the same brand.
MiscellaneousCheck the wireless security system used. Firewalls, filtering, encryption, these are security mechanisms, which are used in wireless networks and should be a part of your wireless router. Go in for good and reputed brands. Check sales rankings and forums. Dig a little into the company’s other products, to see what is the range of their expertise. Linksys, D-Link, Netgear and Belkin are a few good brands.
Top Wireless Routers for Home UseFor home use, keep in mind what and how many devices are going to connect to it, speed and cost. Here are some recent and top rated wireless models for household use:
- Cisco Valet Plus
- D-Link DIR-615 Wireless N Router
- Netgear Wireless-N Router WNR2000
- Belkin N+ Wireless Router
- Apple AirPort Extreme Base Station
- Linksys WRT150N Wireless N Home Router
Best Wireless Router for Gaming For gamers, speed, signal strength and compatibility with consoles (Xbox 360, Wii) are important factors. Some good wireless routers for gaming are:
- Linksys WRT610n
- Netgear WNDR3700 RangeMax Dual Band
- D-Link DGL-4500 GamerLounge
- Apple Airport Extreme Wireless Gateway
- D-Link DIR-655 Xtreme N Gigabit Router
- Linksys E3000 Wireless-N Router
- Belkin Max Play Wireless Router
Wireless routers redefine the meaning of portability and easy connectivity. After installing a wireless router and using it to connect, you’ll wonder how you ever managed without it! So, if anyone asks you “what is a wireless router?” You are now fit to wax lyrical about the subject.
Santa Clara, CA (PRWEB) July 21, 2011
Edimax is proud to present the world’s smallest wireless router in the size of a matchbox or just a tiny bit thicker than a remote key fob for your car. The dimensions are 2.3” x 1.7” and 0.7” and it weighs less than 1 ounce. Its small size and light weight enhances its portability and general usefulness, and makes it the perfect traveling router. You will hardly notice it when you pack it along in your laptop case.
It was also a winner of the 2011 Taiwan Excellence Award, and was highly rated in several European and Asian PC magazines such as: The Editor’s Choice in Turkish’s Oyungezer Monthly Magazine, 9.0 out-of 10 HWM Gold Award from Singapore’s Hardware Mag.
A feature that no other router has is that it can be powered via the laptop’s USB port. So when you travel with your Edimax Nano Router, you don’t have to be concerned about the local electricity and what kind of electrical plug. Of course, depending where you go, you may still need to consider electrical power for your laptop.
A typical usage is when you are at a hotel room where you have a single Internet connection and you wish to share it with your associates i.e. share the Internet with 2 or more PCs. If the connection is a turned-on Ethernet wall socket, you can easily connect from it to the color-coded WAN port of the Edimax Nano Router. Or, if the hotel provides a single wireless sign-on, then you may use the router’s wireless “Universal Repeater” mode and have the initial user log onto the sign-on page. Once you have properly configured the router, it is a full fledge wireless router with a complete set of advanced functions.
Because it is so small and unobtrusive, it can be used as a network adapter for IP-TV, Xbox, PS3 and other game consoles or media player that have a RJ45 socket. It is a universal wireless device, and you eliminate the concern of acquiring the right USB wireless adapter for compatibility.
To save electrical power and the environment, the Edimax Nano Adapter is extremely low powered, and most likely, the lowest powered router in the world. It has smart IQ to lower the power between packet transmissions, receptions, and idle. After all, it is designed to be powered by a 2.5 watt USB port; hence, its power consumption is definitely less than 2.5 watt.
“We provide real-world features that are actually being used and have concrete benefits,” said Richard Hung, the General Manager of Edimax Computer. “When you are traveling especially as a group, it is very easy to take along an Edimax Nano Router. The Edimax BR-6258N is a smart choice regardless of price. There are simply no others!”