Posts tagged ata
Your computer cost you from hundreds to thousands of dollars, but the computer itself is not the most valuable part. The data on the hard disk is the most valuable part. how many hours of work did you put into creating that data? one little event, like a power line spike from a lightning strike, and all that work could be lost. unfortunately, backing up with Windows XP Home Edition is not as simple as it should be.
The first step is to choose a backup device. you might choose a tape drive or a DVD drive, but those devices might require drivers to be installed before you could restore from them. The simplest option is to install a second hard drive in your computer.
The second hard drive doesn’t have to be equal to your main hard drive. you can use an older, smaller hard drive as the backup device, as long as the backup drive has more Free Space than the main hard drive has Used Space.
Install a Second Hard Drive
When installing a second hard drive in your computer, it’s important to configure the drives correctly. your motherboard should have two ATA (sometimes called IDE) connectors. The primary connector should have a cable with two drive connectors. The end connector should go to your main hard drive, the middle connector can be used for a backup hard drive. The second motherboard ATA connector should go to your CD-ROM.
On the back of each hard drive is a jumper. The jumper on your main hard drive should be set to the Master position. The jumper on your backup hard drive should be set to Slave position. most modern computers use Cable Select, so you can set both jumpers to the Cable Select position. Don’t forget the power connector for the second drive.
When you restart your computer, the second drive should be automatically recognized and be designated with the next drive letter available, usually E: (D: being used for the CD-ROM drive).
Format the Second Hard Drive
Generally, you will want to re-format the second hard drive after installation to remove any previously installed operating system and to remove any previous file access rights. To format the drive, select start | Settings | Control Panel | Administration Tools | Computer Management. In the Computer Management window, under Storage, click on Disk Management.
Right click on the backup disk’s drive letter. In the popup menu, select All Tasks | Format. In the Warning dialog box that appears, click on the Yes button. In the Format dialog box, in the File system drop-down list, select NTFS. Click on the OK button. again, in the Warning dialog box that appears, click on the Yes button.
Install the Backup Utility
Windows XP Home Edition doesn’t install the Backup utility by default. You’ll need to install it manually from your Windows XP CD-ROM.
1. after inserting the CD-ROM, open Control Panel’s Add or Remove Programs utility. In the Add or Remove Programs utility, click on the Add New Programs button, then click on the CD or Floppy button.
2. In the run Installation Program dialog box that appears, navigate to the VALUEAD/MSFT/NTBACKUP folder on the CD-ROM and select the file NTBACKUP.MSI. Click on the Finish button. The Backup utility will be installed.
Perform a Full Backup
To perform a backup, select start | Programs | Accessories | System Tools | Backup to open the Backup Utility.
Note: If you don’t find Backup listed in System Tools, double click on the file name ntbackup.exe in the Windowssystem32 folder.
In the Backup or Restore Wizard, click on the Advanced Mode link. In the Backup Utility dialog box, select the Backup tab and set the checkbox next to the drive to backup (c:) and set the checkbox next to System State.
In the Backup media or file name text box, enter the path to the file for the backup (example E:Backup.bkf). Click on the start Backup button.
In the Backup Job Information dialog box that appears, set the radio button next to Replace the data on the media with this backup. Click on the start Backup button. The backup Progress dialog box will appear.
Even when you backup to relatively fast media like hard disk, the process can take 30 minutes or longer depending upon how much data is on the main drive.
When the backup is complete, turn off the computer and remove the data and power cables from the backup drive. it doesn’t make sense to leave the backup drive connected because if the cause of a failure is a power spike, it will take out both drives. next time you want to backup you’ll need to reinstall the cables.
How to Perform a Restore
In the unfortunate event that your computer crashes and you can’t get it back by any other means, you’ll need to reinstall Windows XP from the CD-ROM. (Automated System Recovery is not supported in Windows XP Home Edition.) You’ll need to re-install the Backup utility. Then you’ll need to shut down the computer to install the data and power cables to the backup drive. Restart the computer and use the Backup Utility to restore Windows XP from the backup file.
When using this backup method, it’s important to be careful not to break any pins when you are removing and installing the data cable of the hard drive. and if your computer doesn’t use cable Select, don’t forget to change the jumper on the main hard drive back to Single.
Copyright(C) Bucaro TecHelp. To learn how to maintain your computer and use it more effectively to design a Web site and make money on the Web visit bucarotechelp.com To subscribe to Bucaro TecHelp Newsletter visit bucarotechelp.com/search/000800.asp
Many computers run well using the standard IDE (or extended IDE – EIDE) hard drives and cd- and dvd-burners also exist for both formats. The ATA cable is bigger than the SATA cable, and – as most fellow-geeks will know – could be a real mess if you had cables without the little extension that ensured you couldn’t plug it in the wrong way. You had to remember that pin 1 was mostly towards the power plug – and the red marker on the cable had to be pointed towards pin number 1. Similarly, you had the problem of knowing that the primary drive (called Master) had to be at the end of the cable if you had a cable with two mounting plugs. If you forgot to set the jumper pins on your drives the right way, the machine wouldn’t boot.
So restarting a machine was the order of the day if you forgot any of the many things you had to be aware of, and I’m quite sure we have all tried this. It was a real pain in the backside when you had a single-mounted CD-burner which had to be extended with a hard drive. Either you had to set the hard drive as secondary (so-called Slave), or take out the cd-burner to set it as secondary while the hard drive had to be set to master. You could use cable select if you were dealing with hard drives only – but a few CD-burners didn’t allow for the cable select feature.
Therefore, many geeks were quite happy when the SATA drives came, because these are jumper-free.
If your computer doesn’t have the SATA connection, you can buy an extension card which can handle this format – and you then have the option to run your normal ATA drives from the motherboard while adding the extension card, and thus adding SATA drives to your existing computer. The power cords are identical, so these need not be changed or converted in any way.
You should, however, be mindful that not all computers allow you to boot from the extension card when you mount it on a motherboard which normally is mounted with ATA connections, but you can sometimes solve that by flashing your BIOS. Flashing your BIOS is not something you want to do if you haven’t done it before. If you lose power in that process you want to know how to start up your machine, and care is advised in that part of the process.
But otherwise handling the SATA format is pretty easy when compared with the description of the ATA system described above, and you can easily plug your drives using the new format. Speeds are bound to increase from the current 300Mb/sec – and you will feel the speed difference immediately when you were used to having up to 133Mb/sec with ATA drives.
Network-attached storage boxes are commonly sold already preconfigured with drives, but many companies offer the option for you to build your NAS up yourself. these storage manufacturers sell their NAS devices bare, so you can populate them with the capacity and types of hard drives you prefer.
QNAP TurboNAS TS-259 Pro+ two-bay NASAdding your own drives sometimes requires a modicum of skill with a screwdriver, but it also allows you to put to good use any SATA hard drives you may have lying around, to go with a brand or model of hard drive of your choosing, or to take advantage of the current lowest prices on hard drives. (Typically, rolling your own will save some dough over buying a box preconfigured.)
All current and recent NAS enclosures use SATA. You can still find the odd plain-ATA unit, but they’re increasingly rare, and we recommend avoiding them. Most NAS boxes offer USB 2.0 ports for transferring data from flash or external hard drives, or for sharing printers across the network. More-expensive units offer eSATA and dual ethernet connections to increase speed and provide access if one connection fails, as well as faster CPUs and better performance. USB 3.0 is just now starting to hit NAS enclosures; the Iomega StorCenter px6-300d was the first to offer this feature.
Software is another major differentiator among NAS boxes. NAS boxes run a version of Linux that you access and administrate via a Web browser. How much functionality is built into the software on the NAS varies dramatically from company to company. Products from manufacturers such as QNAP and Synology are closer in capability to a small-business server than to a simple storage device, with built-in memory and a dedicated CPU. they offer website hosting, HTML-based multimedia access across the Web, video surveillance, syncing with other NAS boxes across the Internet, and a number of additional advanced capabilities. many small businesses would be far better served by a top-notch NAS box than by a full Windows PC-based server. meanwhile, remote access is a common capability among NAS boxes for home and office, as is media streaming (including the ability to act as an iTunes server).
Whichever box you choose, don’t overbuy. Units vary drastically in speed, features, hardware, and price, but all of the ones reviewed here can serve multimedia across a home network, having the software to do so. we looked at five boxes, one each from D-Link, Patriot, and QNAP, and two from Synology, as follows:
- D-Link ShareCenter DNS-325-110
- Patriot Javelin S4 Media Server
- QNAP TurboNAS TS-259 Pro+
- Synology DiskStation DS211+
- Synology DiskStation DS411slim
Delaware City, DE (PRWEB) September 07, 2011
InstantPeopleFinder.com, a leading provider of online people find and public records services, wants to alert potential car buyers to be careful of online auto scams. According to the FBIs Internet Crime Complaint Center, cyber criminals are conning consumers shopping for cars with fraudulent vehicle sales and phony vehicle protection claims. In this scam, the fraudsters post cars that they don’t own for sale on various online classified sites. They attract victims to their posting by offering to sell the vehicle well under fair market value, explaining that they must sell quickly for circumstances that range from being relocated for work or military deployment to going through a messy divorce.
Leveraging the urgency of their situation, these imposters tell prospective buyers that they are unable to meet in person or inspect the car and explain that the car is priced so low to compensate for this inconvenience. To give this scam a false sense of legitimacy, the con artist requests that the transaction be handled by a third party in order to protect both parties. They then request that the buyer wire transfer the full or partial purchase amount to the secure third party and fax a receipt of payment to them when the transfer is complete. As soon as the thief receives confirmation of the transfer they vanish, the fictitious vehicle is never delivered, and the victim is out the cost of the transfer.
Another tactic being used by these scammers to deceive and lure consumers into a false sense of security is claiming that the transaction is governed and protected by a purchasing program from a reputable company. Potential buyers are told that the transaction is perfectly safe and covered by liability insurance. After the buyer realizes they have been bilked, they turn to the protection of the purchasing program only to discover another layer of the scam.
InstantPeopleFinder.com offers the following tips to prospective car buyers to avoid becoming a victim of this auto scam:
- Be suspicious of sellers who are selling vehicles for well under fair market value. Use common sense, if it sounds too good to be true, chances are theres a catch.
- Never do business with a seller that refuses to allow potential buyers to see or inspect the vehicle before purchase.
- Consumers who are considering purchasing a vehicle posted online should always deal locally. Be very suspicious of offers to ship a vehicle, no matter how great of a deal it seems to be.
- Request the VIN number of the vehicle that is up for sale. Using CARFAX or another vehicle history report service, find out more about the car, verify the ownership and location of the vehicle, as well as ensure the title is in good standing.
- Be distrustful of sellers who insist on a quick completion of the transaction and request payments are made through wire transfer payment systems. Once that money is transferred, it is gone. Wire services do not protect or insure against fraudulent transactions.
- Gather as much information as possible about the seller like First name & last name, address, phone number. Use InstantPeopleFinders people locator service to verify the information. InstantPeopleFinder.com searches in various databases like public records, white pages, phone directories, social sites to provide you with detailed information. If something doesnt match up, you may perform a background check or walk away.
Instant People Finder is a premier real-time online people lookup and people address finder tool. The powerful search engine uses names, background checks, yellow pages, public records and social networking to instantaneously provide relevant and most up-to-date information about anyone. Whether looking for a home or business address, phone number, or email this free people search tool provides comprehensive information, at the click of a mouse. Read InstantPeopleFinder Blog for more information.
Follow us @ Facebook & Twitter
However simple the term A/B switch may sound, A/B switches are not necessarily simple to design. Following is a thought process with examples that can assist any network manager with the development of the exact switch to meet his or her requirements.
1. Location – where are you going to put the switch?:
A) Desktop – A desktop A/B switch may look like a black box with a knob, but that is not the total story. An example is the Model 8050 RJ45 A/B Switch that is CAT5 compliant. This manual switch enables access to two 10/100 Base-T networks (up to 100 Mbps) and incorporates a high-quality sealed switch with self-wiping low-impedance contacts. The switch is transparent to data speed and format. The anodized enclosure provides EMI/RFI shielding which enables the switch to perform well in noisy environments. A desktop switch can be compact, full-featured and sit right on a desk.
B) Computer Room Rack – Following are two examples of rackmount A/B switches.
i. Switch Modules – Model 9740 switching system includes switch modules and a rack that can accommodate up to 40 channels in only 8.75 inches of panel height. The A, B and COMMON connections are on the rear panel. The 2-position rotary switches are neatly lined up on the front panel. All 8 pins are switched which allows compatibility with all RJ45 interfaces. Systems are available to accommodate both CAT5 and CAT5e high-speed requirements. forty channels of A/B switching in a compact rack may meet your business requirements.
ii. Switch Box – A switch box instead of a module may be a better fit for some requirements. The Model 9716 16-Channel RJ45 CAT5e Compliant A/B Switch, with manual operation, fits into a standard 19 rack (2U high). Sixteen front-panel knobs provide individual control of each channel. This switch configuration is rated for 10/100/1000 networks (up to CAT5e).
C) Process Control System – DIN rail mounting is an ideal method of mounting switches for use in process control systems. The Model 9080 RJ45 A/B/Offline Switch allows the user to access two RJ45 devices connected to its A and B ports with one RJ45 device connected to its COMMON port, or to isolate all ports by switching to the OFFLINE position. This unit is a manually operated keylock switch requiring no power. The switch is easily integrated as a system component by utilizing its rear panel DIN rail mounting bracket. A grounding screw is mounted on the front panel.
D) Nuclear Power Plant or other Rough Environments – The Model 4503 is a Seismic-Proof DB9 A/B switch. This manual switch has been ruggedized to withstand vibrations. The switch and its feed-through connector have successfully passed the rigorous seismic testing of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Seismic Qualification Reporting and Testing Standardization SQURTS Program, qualifying it for use in nuclear power plants. The Model 4503 is ideal for factory floors, energy facilities, and any other harsh environment application.
E) Ship or other Mobile/Motion Application – The manual Model 4504 Ruggedized DB25 A/B switch is designed to withstand vibrations encountered in mobile and motion applications. This switch has also passed rigorous seismic testing. The optional mounting ears allow firm attachment.
F) In the Wall – The Model 7190 is a manually operated double gang wall box Online/Offline switch. When in the ONLINE position, the switch connects the COMMON device to Device A. In the Offline position, the switch disconnects the COMMON device from Device A. there are two RJ45 CAT5e ports on the bracket inside the wall box. The RJ45 network cables must be run into the box and bracket before installing in the wall.
2. Connectors – Types of Connectors/Ports
The common types of connectors and ports include: DB9, DB15, DB25, DB37, HD15, BNC, RJ45, RJ11/12, MINI-DIN and USB.
3. RJ45 Connector/Port – If the switch has RJ45 ports, is CAT5, CAT5e, or CAT6 required?
A) Cat5 is a type of twisted pair cabling. Twisted pair cabling is categorized according to its transmission capability. Category 5 (CAT 5) cabling transmits data at speeds up to 100 Mbps.
B) Cat5e is a variation of CAT5 that supports short-run Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbps) networking by utilizing all four wire pairs in a CAT5 cable.
C) CAT6 is a cable standard for Gigabit Ethernet and includes stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise. The CAT6 cable standard provides performance of up to 250 MHz and is suitable for 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX (Fast Ethernet), 1000BASE-T/1000BASE-TX (Gigbit Ethernet) and 10GBASE-T (10-Gigabit Ethernet). Most high quality CAT6 cables will exceed the standard and actually provide performance of up to 550 Mhz.
4. Controls – how do you want to control the switch?
Our four categories include: Local Manual, Remotely Controllable, Automatic, or any combination.
A) Local Manual – All of the network switch examples above are manually operated. they can feature pushbuttons or rotary knobs and they require no power.
B) Remotely Controllable Network Switches – This switch group includes RS232 Serial Control, Contact Closure, IP Addressable, and any combination of the three.
i. RS232 Serial Control – The REMOTE connector accepts RS232 serial data ASCII commands. An example of a switch with RS232 Serial Control is the Model 7356 6-Channel RJ45 CAT5 A/B Switch with Local and Remote Individual Channel Control. Each channel maintains its current position in the event of a power loss and continues to pass data. The unit fits into a standard 19 rack and is 1U high. The Supervisory Remote Port consists of a DB9 female connector that accepts RS232 serial data. Switch positions can be selected locally via front panel controls or remotely via RS232 ASCII command via the Remote port.
ii. Contact Closure – An example of a Contact Closure switch is the Model 7359 Tri-Channel RJ45 CAT5 A/B Switch with Remote Control via Contact Closure. The switch is controlled manually via pushbuttons or remotely via the DB9 female connector on the rear panel that accepts contact closure signal switch commands.
iii. IP Addressable – An example of an IP Addressable switch is the Model 7465 8-Channel RJ45 A/B Switch with 10/100 Base-T LAN TELNET access. The 8 channels on this switch can be independently controlled via pushbuttons. Remote access can be accomplished via the RJ45 Female connector on the rear panel that accepts 10/100 Base-T LAN Access Ethernet for remote control operation. Remotely select switch position, query switch position, and lockout the front-panel pushbuttons. During power loss, the Model 7465 continues to pass data in the lost position.
iv. Graphical User Interface (GUI) – The remote GUI interface allows the user to control the switch remotely with simple point and click operation. The Model 7358 RJ45/48 T1 Interface A/B Switch features both Telnet and GUI remote control. This switch allows quick connection to any one of two RJ45/48 T1 interface devices from one COMMON device. Local control is via a front-panel pushbutton. The remote control RJ45 port is an IP addressable, 10/100 Base-T port. Remote control Telnet command interface or the Graphical User Interface allow the user to control the switch position, lockout the front panel operations and obtain switch status. The software features allow the user to access the switch via any standard Web browser. with simple point and click operation the user can control and monitor the Model 7358. The user can also change the switch’s IP address. LAN access gives users across the LAN or over the Internet access to control the switch.
v. Code Operated – The switch position and lockout status can be changed through the data stream on the COMMON port. The Model 4406 RJ45 Code-Operated A/B Switch shares one RJ45 interface device between two other devices. The switch may be controlled via a front-panel pushbutton or remotely by sending a trigger character sequence to the unit via the Remote port. Switch position status is displayed by front-panel LEDs or can be queried by the PC connected to the Remote RS-232 serial port.
5. Security Concerns – Keylock, Lockout and Offline Positions
A) Keylock – The advantage of a keylock is the security of knowing that only the person with the key can change the switch position. The Model 8076 Dual-Channel RJ45/110-Block, CAT5e 100 Base-T Network Access Keylock Switch accepts two 8-conductor CAT5e cables INPUT via two RJ45/110-Block punch-down connectors. This switch allows the user to switch-through or break-from two OUTPUT RJ45 exit ports. The user can remove the top cover of the switch and punch down the connections inside the unit.
B) Lockout – The advantage of the lockout feature is that the user can lockout the switch position remotely and be assured that the switch is operating as prescribed. The Model 7348 Tri-Channel RJ45 CAT 5 A/B Switch may be controlled manually via pushbuttons or remotely from an RS232 serial port. Each channel is an individual switch that is independently controlled. Remote commands can switch each channel individually or all channels simultaneously as well as lockout the front panel control. Remote commands allow monitoring of channel switch position and lockout status.
C) Offline and Cutoff Positions – with remote and automatic switches, the switch can automatically switch to an offline position before switching between ports A and B. Manual and remotely controllable switches are also available with a physical offline position that can be selected to stop the switch from passing data. The Model 7246-ESL Dual Channel RS530 Switch and RJ45 Secure/Non-Secure Switch with Cutoff position provides two-channel switching in a low profile, 19-inch 1U rack unit. Channel one shares a single DB25(M) interface device connected to the COMMON port among two other DB25(F) devices connected to the SECURE and NON-SECURE DB25 ports. Channel two shares an RJ45 device connected to the COMMON port among two other RJ45 devices connected to the SECURE and NON-SECURE RJ45 ports. both channels allow the user to set the switches to the CUTOFF position which stops any and all data throughput for the switch. If power to the Model 7246-ESL is removed, both switches will automatically move to the CUTOFF position. When power is restored, each switch will move to the programmed default position.
6. Power Loss – how do you want to handle a power loss?
Which position should the switch be in? Should the switch continue to pass data?
A) last Position, Pass Data – The Model 4421 CAT5 RJ45 A/B Switch with Password Serial Remote Port includes an RS232 serial security enhanced Supervisory Remote Port requiring a password login to access. upon proper authentication, a terminal or computer in terminal mode connected to this port can communicate with the unit, determine its status, change the switch position as desired, and/or lockout the front panel switching capability. The Model 4421 retains the last switch position in the event of a power loss and continues to pass data.
B) Default Position – The Model 4515 8-Channel A/B Single Contact Relay Port Switch, RJ11 Interface with 10/100 BASE-T LAN Access and Serial Remote Access shares a device connected to a single pin of each RJ11 interface port between two other devices connected to the A and B pins for each port. Remote access can be via a Web-based GUI interface through 10/100 BASE-T Ethernet connection or using ASCII commands sent to the unit via an RS232 connection. Each port has (4) active contacts: Normally OPEN, Normally CLOSED, the WIPER contact of the relay, and a pin for SG (signal ground referenced to the switch unit). The Model 4515 defaults to the Normally CLOSED position in the event of a power loss to the unit.
C) Switch Evaluates and Determines Power Up Position – The Model 7387 RS232 DB25 A/B Switch with Fallback and Remote Port shares a single port interface device connected to the COMMON port among two other devices connected to the A and B ports. This switch can sense RD activity or DCD presence on the ports and switch accordingly. The switch can also be controlled manually via pushbutton or remotely via contact closure. All switched signals are passed via latching copper contact relays that maintain their position and continuity in the event of a power loss. When power is restored, the Model 7387 loads the previous position and mode of operation and checks DIP switch settings and the remote port to determine the correct startup configuration.
7. Number of Channels per Chassis – From single channel A/B switches to multiple channel switches, the technology exists to handle specific requirements.
A) Combining Single Channel Switch Modules – Up to eight single-channel Model 7009 RJ45 CAT5e A/B/Off-Line Remotely Controllable Switch Modules compactly fit into a Model 9030 Rack. This modular expandable system allows the user to add switching capacity as required. Channels are switched individually.
B) 4 Channels in Slim Rackmount Configuration – The Model 7234 Quad-Channel RJ45 A/B Switch with Remote Control Port is slim, only 1U high, and fits into a standard 19 rack. All four channels are switched simultaneously. This switch allows local switching via pushbutton. Remote switching is accomplished via the transition from open to closed or closed to open via a single set of contacts connected across pins 1 & 2 of the DB9/Female REMOTE connector port. upon initial power to the unit, the unit will read the REMOTE port to determine the power up position state. If there are no connections to the REMOTE port connector, pins 1 & 2 are open, thus the unit will default to all four channels in the A position. All four channels are switched simultaneously.
C) 8 Channels in a Rackmount Configuration – Model 9066 8-channel RJ45 (2 Pair) 10BASE-T manual A/B Switch enables access to two 10 Base-T networks. The operator can reroute data between two networks with a simple push of a button. Switch each channel individually.
D) 16 Channels of Auto-Controlled Switching in Rackmount Configuration – The Model 7435 Auto-Controlled 16-Channel RJ45 A/B Switch system allows sharing a single port RJ45 interface device connected to the COMMON port among two other devices connected to the A and B ports for each of the switch’s 16 channels. The port position, A or B, of individual channels in the Model 7435 is user-configurable to be determined either manually, via the GUI, or automatically per the programming. In the Automatic mode, the position of the individual channels is controlled by sensing incoming data on ports A and B. All switched signals are passed via gold clad silver relays that maintain their position and continuity even in the event of a power loss. All channels can be switched simultaneously or independently.
E) Up to 40 Channels of A/B Switching – Model 9741 handles up to 40 channels of A/B switching in a high-density switch system that takes up only 8.75 inches of panel height. The A, B and COMMON connectors are on the rear panel. The 2-position rotary switches are on the front panel. All 8 pins are switched allowing compatibility with all RJ45 interfaces. This reliable switch system is manually operated and requires no power. Each channel is switched individually.
8. Channel Control – Simultaneous, Individual Remote Control or both. how do you want to switch your channels?
The examples above provide a variety of control systems:
Model 7009: Individual switching
Model 7234: Simultaneous switching
Model 9066: Individual switching
Model 7435: Individual or simultaneous switching
Model 9741: Individual switching
9. Power Requirements
Most remotely controllable and automatic switches require an external power supply.
A) UL approved 120VAC, 60Hz wall mount power module that supplies 12 VDC, 500mA to the unit.
B) CE and UL listed wall mount wide range power module, 100VAC, 240VAC, 50Hz/60Hz supplies 12 VDC, 1.5A to the unit.
C) Exceptions: Some switches require customer supplied voltage to the power input connectors.
The data networks of today are almost as diverse as snowflakes. Managers have huge tasks: trying to backup data, secure the network, deal with fiber to copper conversions and so much more. This white paper was developed to be used as a guide to help in the design of an A/B copper network backup switch.
Press Release Source: Verizon Wireless on Wednesday September 14, 2011, 11:36 am EDT
WALNUT CREEK, Calif., Sept. 14, 2011 /PRNewswire/ – Starting tomorrow, Verizon Wireless customers in Santa Barbara County can take advantage of Verizon Wireless’ 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE) network, which will allow them to share music and photos, surf the Web and download files up to 10 times faster than before. The network launches on Sept. 15 and will be available to customers in the following cities and towns:
- Downtown Santa Barbara
- Los Alamos
- parts of Santa Maria
“We are proud to bring our 4G LTE network to Santa Barbara County and help lead residents, small businesses and local government into the next generation of connectivity and communications technology,” said Kevin Zavaglia, region president for Verizon Wireless. “Our 4G LTE network is revolutionizing the way our customers communicate, enabling them to connect faster and more fully with each other and those outside our community.”
Verizon Wireless began introducing its 4G LTE network on Dec. 5, 2010, covering more than 110 million Americans. The 4G LTE network is quickly expanding, currently covering more than 160 million Americans, with plans to cover more than 185 million Americans by the end of 2011. in addition to expanding its network in San Francisco, Indianapolis and Cleveland/Akron tomorrow, the company is adding 26 new markets, for a total of 143 metropolitan areas covered.
In real-world, fully-loaded network environments, 4G LTE users should experience average data rates of 5 to 12 megabits per second (Mbps) on the downlink and 2 to 5 Mbps on the uplink, so customers from north of Santa Maria to Carpentaria can enjoy the fast speeds of the world’s first large-scale 4G LTE network.
4G LTE Devices
Residents of Santa Barbara County can choose from 11 devices to access the blazingly fast speeds of the 4G LTE network, including:
- Smartphones: DROID BIONIC™ by Motorola, Revolution™ by LG, DROID Charge by Samsung and ThunderBolt™ by HTC
- Tablets: Samsung Galaxy Tab™ 10.1 with 4G LTE
- Notebooks and Netbooks: HP® Pavilion dm1-3010nr Entertainment PC and Compaq™ Mini CQ10-688nr with built-in 4G LTE
- Hotspots: Verizon Wireless 4G LTE Mobile Hotspot MiFi™ 4510L and Samsung 4G LTE Mobile Hotspot SCH-LC11
- Modems: Verizon Wireless 4G LTE USB Modem 551L and Pantech UML290 USB modem
Details on each device can be found at verizonwireless.com/4GLTE.
4G LTE Data Plans and Pricing
Verizon Wireless smartphone customers will need to subscribe to a Verizon Wireless Nationwide Talk plan beginning at $39.99 for 450 minutes per month, and a smartphone data plan starting at $30 monthly access for 2 GB of data. Verizon Wireless customers can choose from the following data plans for their 4G LTE devices.
- Mobile Broadband Plans for smartphones, tablets and netbooks:
- $30 monthly access for 2 GB monthly allowance
- $50 monthly access for 5 GB monthly allowance
- $80 monthly access for 10 GB monthly allowance
- Mobile Broadband Plans for Mobile Hotspots, USB modems and notebooks:
- $50 monthly access for 5 GB monthly allowance
- $80 monthly access for 10 GB monthly allowance
Customers can view and manage their data usage by logging on to My Verizon at verizonwireless.com/myverizon.
Extending Coverage and Reliability
Verizon Wireless is also working with rural communications companies to collaboratively build and operate a 4G LTE network in those areas using the tower and backhaul assets of the rural company and Verizon Wireless’ core 4G LTE equipment and premium 700 MHz spectrum. To date, 10 rural carriers have announced their participation in the LTE in Rural America program and have leased spectrum covering, in total, more than 2.1 million people in rural communities and nearly 72,000 square miles.
When customers travel outside of a 4G LTE coverage area, the devices automatically connect to Verizon Wireless’ 3G network, enabling customers to stay connected from coast to coast. Verizon Wireless’ 3G network is the largest, most reliable network in the country and allows customers in 3G coverage areas who purchase 4G LTE devices today to take advantage of 4G LTE speeds when the faster network becomes available in their city.
For more information about Verizon Wireless’ 4G LTE network, visit verizonwireless.com/lte.
About Verizon Wireless
Verizon Wireless operates the nation’s fastest, most advanced 4G network and largest, most reliable 3G network. The company serves 106.3 million total wireless connections, including 89.7 million retail customers. Headquartered in Basking Ridge, N.J., with 83,000 employees nationwide, Verizon Wireless is a joint venture of Verizon Communications (NYSE, NASDAQ: VZ) and Vodafone (LSE, NASDAQ: VOD). for more information, visit verizonwireless.com. To preview and request broadcast-quality video footage and high-resolution stills of Verizon Wireless operations, log on to the Verizon Wireless Multimedia Library at verizonwireless.com/multimedia.
Variable Power Supplies are available in Linear and Switched Mode formats from 30W up to 32kW, and in bench top or 19 rack mounting styles. most units have analogue control of voltage and current values as standard enabling the user to set the voltage level and the current limit remotely, and offer the option for serial communications to a host device using IEE488.2, GPIB, RS232, RS485 or USB.
Variable Power Supplies are also referred to as Programmable Power Supplies, Laboratory Power Supplies or Bench Power Supplies. Essentially these terms describe the same equipment and refer to a device which can be plugged into the AC mains and produces a fully controllable yet variable dc voltage. for many applications (for example in research and development) there is also a need for parameters to be limited so the current limit on these units is also controllable, as well as additional overvoltage protection to prevent the voltage being accidentally increased beyond a predetermined level.
These units are used in a variety of applications and industries, including; universities and educational establishments, research and development, laboratories, automotive, space technology, aerospace, oil exploration, renewable energy, electronics, and production testing in many other industries. a common application is automatic test engineering (ATE) where these variable power supplies are rack mounted in 19 cabinets, controlled by an automated program and then monitored remotely so that the data for the items under test can be logged for pass/fail decisions and for future reference.
Remote control options representing 0-100% of voltage or current range include 0-5Vdc, 0-10Vdc, 0-20mA, 4-20mA or resistance programming. Many different serial remote control options exist but for test and measurement applications the most commonly used is GPIB/IEEE488.2 using the LabVIEW driver, as this has become almost a default standard within many laboratory environments. using this system up to 31 devices can be controlled or monitored from a single controller.
The beauty of the units available is the sheer number of variations that are on offer. Many different voltage and current ranges are available from low voltages of 0-6Vdc through to units offering 0-1000Vdc. the current ranges are also scalable from a few amps up to 0-600A meaning there is almost always a suitable solution available. in addition to the standard models we can also offer ruggedised versions of some units, so for applications where vibration could be an issue (if the unit is mounted on a vehicle for example) we can provide a more suited solution.
Portable Document Format and EBook are the two applications which are employed for presenting information in a professional manner. The Portable Document Format is a non-editable file format for transferring large volumes of data across the platform. It is a file format devised for accumulating volumes of data in an easy manner. A person can coordinate with physically distant people using the Portable Document Format. An electronic book is a digital form or version of the book in which information or data on any subject is presented. It can be used to publish or transfer the work over the Internet.
Both of the applications such as Portable Document Format and EBook are popularly used by the people across the globe. Both of them are popular for their features and compatibility mode. These two file formats can be accessed on different applications such as Windows, Linux, ipad or Personal Digital Assistants. In order to convert the two file formats into iPad, you need or require converting the Portable Document Format and electronic book into ePub.
ePub stands for electronic publication which refers to the free or open electronic book. It has a file extension called ePub. This publication is designed for displaying the text which can be optimized for a particular display device.
iPad is a version of an iPhone application which is a mixture of phone, touch screen and laptop. Using this application you can use the Internet for listening to music, movies, games or research purposes. They are used for research and study or entertainment such as playing games, movies or music. The same program can be used for making phone calls. You can easily display your content in the form of an electronic publication on the iPad.
There are many tools or computer programs available with which you can convert the EBook and PDF into ePub for iPad. You need to download and install the tool on your system. The interface varies in different versions. Find and upload the PDF files and eBooks that you want to convert into ePub. After the conversion, you can locate the folder where you want to save the application.
It will not be an exaggeration to say that information is one of the most important issues for any business. Dissemination of the data to the concerned people is equally vital. Computer networking came into being to make the communication between the computers faster and easier. It not only provides faster communication, but also enabled the users to access remote programs and remote databases of the same enterprise or other organizations.
Apart from this, there are other reasons also to employ computer networking. Through computer networking, cost could be reduced by sharing hardware and software resources and by downsizing to microcomputer-based networks instead of using mainframes. Gathering information from multiple resources has become easier, which ensures the reliability of the data.
As per definition, computer networking is nothing but the process of connecting multiple computers for the communication purpose so that information as well as resources could be shared by all connected devices.
Categorization of computer networks could be done based on vast range of characteristics like medium used for communication, scale, networking topology used, communication protocol, etc.
Mediums used by computer networks
For communication between two devices, a medium is must. There are several mediums, such as electrical cable, optical fiber and radio waves which are used for networking. Electrical and optical fiber are used in wired technology while radio waves are employed in wireless technology.
In the wired technology, twisted pair cable is the most commonly used medium for communication. Twisted pair wire is made of metal wire that are twisted into pairs. Computer networking wire contains 4 pairs of metal wires, which are used for data as well as voice transmission. The purpose of using twisted wires is to minimize noise which is caused by electromagnetic induction and crosstalk. There are two pairs of twisted wires, namely Unshielded Twisted Pair and Shielded Twisted Pair. The speed range of twisted pair cable is 2 million bits per second to 10 billion bits per second.
Another widely used medium in wired technology is coaxial cable. It is mostly used for local area networks, cable television systems, etc. It is made of metal wire, covered with insulating layer of a flexible material with a high dielectric constant, all of which are wrapped by a conductive layer. The purpose of using insulating layer is to minimize noise and signal distortion.
Optical fiber is the another communication medium, invented in the second half of twentieth century. Its components are filaments of glass fiber covered in protective layers that transmits data by means of pulses of light. It carries light signals over long distances. Electromagnetic interferences cannot affect the signals carried by it. Its maximum transmission speed could touch trillions of bits per second.
For all types of cable malfunctioning, network support is provided by many service providers.
There are several widely used wireless technologies, such as Wireless LAN Technology, Communication Satellite Technology, Infrared Communication Technology, Terrestrial Microwave Technology, etc.
Wireless LAN Technology employs hi frequency technology, which is akin to digital cellular and low frequency radio technology. This spread spectrum technology connects multiple devices in a limited area. Wireless LAN in an office or home could be easily set up with the help of numerous PC support providers.
Communication satellites utilizes microwave radio signals as communication medium because microwave radio signals are least affected by earth’s atmosphere. Data, voice and TV signals are transmitted and received using microwave radio technology.
Infrared Communication Technology is used to transmit signals between devices within short distance. The maximum distance covered by this technology is typically 10 meters.
Terrestrial Microwave Technology employs low gigahertz signal range, that restricts transmissions to line of sight. The maximum distance between microwave signal relay stations is 48km.
Wireless computer network is the backbone of business and technological processes, which could be immensely damaged if the networking system breaks down. In that eventuality, online PC support should be used to set the networking system right.
Many computer networks rely on cables for transmitting information to electronic devices within their local area network (LAN). the type of cabling depends on the topology, protocol and size of the network.
The common types used in LAN systems are category 5e and category 6 cables. These are unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables, which mean they consist of four pairs of wires that are twisted a different number of times per inch. the method of twisting is designed to eliminate cable noise interference from other electrical devices. the more tightly twisted a UTP cable, the higher the rate of transmission. UTP cables are typically fitted with a rj45 connector. These connectors are made of plastic and are similar to those used for telephones.
Category 5 Cable
Commonly used for Ethernet cabling systems due to its high signal integrity, Cat5e bulk cable is capable of handling networks that generate up to 1,000 megabits of information per second (mpbs). Cat5e is also used to carry voice and video systems in equipment such as ATMs.
While Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is most commonly used to make the outer covering of the cable, other material such as Hydrogen Chloride (HCL) is used as well. Many Cat5e cables also have a test rating of 350 megahertz (MHz), meaning it is capable of transmitting data at a speed of one gigabyte.
The internal composition of a Cat5e cable will feature either a solid or stranded conductor depending on its intended use. the cheaper of the two, solid conductors consist of a solid piece of copper and are commonly used for fixed installation purposes.
Also known as Cat5e patch cables, stranded conductor cable is known for providing flexibility due to the use of copper in bundled form. It is commonly used for connecting computers or game systems to a switch or router.
Category 6 Cable
Much of the physical composition of category 6 cable is the same as category 5. the main difference is its data transmission capability. Primarily used for Gigabit Ethernet systems, Cat6 bulk cable and cat6 patch cables can run networks with data transmission rates up to 10,000 mbps at speeds as fast as 400mhs. Unshielded cat5e and cat6 cable are available in lengths up to 100 meters for most purposes.
Which cable is the best fit for your network? As mentioned previously, that will depend on the size of the system as well as the topology and protocol.
But no matter which one you use, it is reassuring to know that both category 5 and category 6 UTP cables have a solid reputation for providing high quality data transmission to local networks around the globe.